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Biography, Autobiography, Journal and Anecdotes

Notes and Glossary

Abdul Baha
- see Baha'ism.

Abdu'l Qadir Jilani
- see Jilani.

- unbroken, continuous. Poem without stanzas. Marathi devotional song.

Abhedananda Swami
- one of the disciples of Shri Ramakrishna, who renounced the worldly life some time after the Master's passing away. He worked at the Vedanta Society in New York where he gave many lectures afterwards published as books e.g. "Why a Hindu accepts Christ and rejects Churchianity".

Abrams, Dr. Albert
- American physician (1863-1924) who published "New Concepts in Diagnosis and Treatment" in 1916, which holds that disease is disharmony of electric oscillations in the body.

Abu al Ala Ahmad al Maari
- Arab poet (973-1057) who wrote on morals and philosophy.

- School of Vedantic philosophy, doctrine of non-dualism, which teaches the oneness of God, the soul and the universe, the exponent of which is Shankaracharya (8th or 9th century).

- officer. Afsar-ul-Mulk = Aide de Camp.

- Literary : the people of the Tradition. A modernist neo-orthodox sect or trend of thought existing already in the 10th century A.D. (4th century of the Hegira). Advocating a return to the pure sources of Islam, especially the Traditions about the Prophet, it condemns all later innovations or synthesis with non-Muslim currents and reasserts Islam over against Hindu (Arya Samaj) Christian and Ahmadia missionary efforts.

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani,
- (1835-1908) founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement.

Ahmadiyya Movement
- a Muslim sect founded in 1880 by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian (Qadian is a district of the Punjab province in India), who wrote "Barahin-i-Ahmadiyya''- the arguments of the Ahmadiyya. At the time of Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan's birth and Mehr Bakhsh's student days in his native Punjab, Ghulam Ahmad still was well regarded by Muslims, amongst other things for his reaction against the propaganda of Christian missionary. Later, however, acceptance of British rule, claims of prophethood and  other controversial issues led to the Ahmadiyya's virtual rejection from the main body of Islam.

- the greatest of the Mogul emperors (1542-1605). He made of his Court a center of culture and favored religious toleration; he discussed religious matters with Hindus, Muslims, Christians and Zoroastrians. After 1582 he formulated his "din-i ilahi", a monotheistic religion.

- literary: eminent, noble.

Ali, Hazrat
- Cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad and fourth Khalif in succession to him, head of most of the Sufi Orders.

Aligarh College
- Anglo-Oriental College founded in 1875 by Sayyed Ahmed Khan. It was originally intended to give education to children and later became a Muslim University, also attended by many Hindus.

Alt, Miss Angela
- see biographical sketches.

Amir, emir
- commander.

Amir Khusru
- see Khusru.

- assembly, meeting, society. A nomination used by a great many Muslim-associations.

- created in 1913 by Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925) as the result of his break with the Theosophical Society. He put Christianity above the Eastern religions and gave ample scope to science. For Rudolf Steiner science is the knowledge of reality not limited by senses and intellect. He also created a pedagogic philosophy and founded the Waldorf School in Stuttgart.

Arbabi nishat
- arab words meaning "masters of pleasure", dancers and musicians.

- friend and disciple of Shri Krishna, one of the heroes of the Mahabharata. He hesitated to fight his own kinsmen and this was the occasion of the delivery by Lord Krishna of the best known Hindu sermon, the Bhagavad-Gita.

Armstrong, Mr. R. A. L. (Khalif Mumtaz)
- see biographical sketches.

Arnold, Sir Edwin
- English poet (1833-1904), Principal of the Sanskrit College in Puna. His poetry was influenced by the Orient and inspired by Oriental themes and legends e.g. "The Light of Asia". He translated the Gita Govinda: "The Indian Song of Songs" love songs of Krishna and Radha.

Arya Samaj
- literary: Aryans' Society. An orthodox religious association of Hindu Vedic revivalism founded in 1875 by Swami Dayananda Saraswati (1824-1883).

- name applied to the Indo-European language family.

- originally a gold coin worth about 16 rupees.

Assagioli, Dott. Roberto
- emphasised the necessity of making one's conscious personality strong enough to cope with all that psycho-analysis reveals. He wished to teach the patient "the harmonious co-ordination of the subconscious with the higher elements or the soul-qualities of the personality". The patient then draws on his own spiritual resources. Among his works are: "Denaro e Vita Spirituale" (Roma 1937), (Money and Spiritual Life), "Il Mistero dell'Io" (Firenze 1954), (The Mystery of the ego).

- a State in the north-east of India.

- first section of a Hindustani melody.

Augener & Co.
- Publishing Company in London.

- Father, old man, faqir.

- see Baha'ism.

- a title of respect, like Sir.

- Persian word for hero, also used as a title.

- in 1844 Mirza Ali Muhammad proclaimed himself "Bab" (the door) and tried to reform the Islamic institutions. He was executed in 1850 in Persia and a revolt of his adherents was cruelly suppressed. The Movement was continued by Baha Ullah who passed forty years in prison. He preached a world-religion, recognizing the eternal truth of the essence of all the previous God-revelations and he strove towards a world-federation in which all men would be free and equal. His son Abdul Baha succeeded him in 1892 and spread Baha'ism in the Western world.

Bailly, Edmond
- French author of many books on music and sound e.g. "Du Merveilleux dans la Musique et de la Therapeutique Musicale" (On the Marvelous in Music and on Healing by Music) and "Les Vibrations du Son et la Vie Universelle" (The Vibrations of Sound and the Universal Life). Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan wrote in "The Sufi" of November 1916: "In memoriam – This modest and quiet gentleman with his childlike simplicity was a most enthusiastic and earnest student of Eastern music and philosophy."

Baker, Mrs. Mary Eddy
- see Eddy Baker, Mrs. M.

Bala Sabha
- children's association.

Bala sangit mala
- a garland of music for girls.

Banda Nawaz Sayyed Muhammad Gesu Daraz
- Indian Sufi Saint of the Chishti Order and healer (1320-1422), writer of a great many books on Sufism and on Islamic doctrine. His tomb is situated just outside Gulbarga (Deccan) and is a well-known place of pilgrimage.

- Persian word for slavery, service, humility.

Baum, Mr. G. (Sheikh)
- see biographical sketches.

Becharagi, be charegi
- Persian word, meaning: being without remedy, helplessness, poverty,

Beecham, Sir Thomas
- internationally acclaimed English conductor (1879-1961) who founded the British National Opera Company and the London Philharmonic Orchestra.

- a place West of Calcutta also called Bargachia, whose Maharaja was Saraswati Chendra Bahadur.

- a region in the north-east of India.

Benton, Miss Rose
- one of Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan's early mureeds in London. About her Pir-o-Murshid wrote in "The Sufi" of January 1919 that her interest in the beauty and harmony of Oriental music and dance had taken up her life in the cultivation of beauty in body, mind and soul,

Besant, Mrs. Annie
- English lady (1847-1934) who became President of the Theosophical Society in India. She contributed much to the foundation of an Order of Freemasonry open to men and women both, which originated in France under the name of "Le Droit Humain" (Human Rights) in 1899 and spread rapidly. With Mr. Leadbeater she founded "The Order of the Star in the East" (Benares/ Varanasi 1911), with the object of preparing humanity to receive the coming world-teacher. The Order was dissolved in 1929. She also established the Liberal Catholic Church.

Best, Mr. Cecil E. B. (Sheikh Shahbaz)
- see biographical sketches.

- The Song of the Lord. Sacred Scripture of the Hindus in which Shri Krishna gives spiritual instruction to Arjuna before the great battle.

Bhairava raga
- raga of asceticism and reverence.

- a favorite form of religious musical recital, in which a choir sings after a leader, accompanied by an orchestra.

Bhajia, bhujiya
- fried balls made of flour and vegetables.

Bharata Muni
- a sage who is regarded as the founder of the present system of Indian music; some scholars assign his work to the first century after Christ. In his well-known book "Natya Shastra" the theory of music is explained.

Bharati, Baba Premanand
- author of 'Shri Krishna, the Lord of Love".

Bhatkhande, Mr.
- could be Pandit Vidvan N.V. Bhatkhande, who patronized the All-India Academy of Music from 1916 and strove to develop Indian music, collecting and preserving the best classical compositions and trying to arrange the ragas according to a uniform method.

Bhau [likely should be Bhay भय which is Hindi]
- fear, dread, terror.

Bhau, bhav
- sentiment, relationship.

Bibhen Biy
- = Biy Behen Bi(bi); her ladyship sister. The use of proper names especially of elder respectable ladies is considered in the East to be rather impolite.

- see Biy.

Biblioteca filosofica
- the name of some study-centers for the study of philosophy, founded at Florence, Italy, in 1907. Courses and lectures on the main philosophical and religious problems were arranged and then published.

Bilgrami, Sayyad Hassan
- born in 1844, professor of Arabic at the College of Lucknow, India, director of education to H.E.H. the Nizam, as whose private secretary he was appointed in 1911.

Bima Biy
- = Biy Ma Bi(bi): her ladyship mother.

Bin, Bina
- name used in Northern India for the vina.

Biy, bi
- Lady. When not contracted the word "bibi" ("biwi'": lady of the house, wife) is often associated with the married state, seniority or special reverence and affection.

Bjerregaard, Carl H.A.
- lecturer and author of many books on mysticism and inner life. Before writing "Sufism, Omar Khayyam & E. Fitzgerald" (London 1915), he had written "A Sufi Interpretation of the quatrains of Omar Khayyam" (New York 1902). Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan wrote about him in "The Sufi" of November 1915 : "He has explained how the conventional phraseology of Sufi poets has been so often misinterpreted by writers who have only been linguists – not mystics."

Björset, Mr. B.
- see biographical sketches.

Blavatski, Mrs. Elena Petrovska
- (1831-1891) founder of the Theosophical Society and author of "The Secret Doctrine" which she said was inspired by great Masters from Tibet and the Himalayas and which contains her main teachings.

Bloch, Regina Miriam
- author of "The Book of Strange Loves" (London 1918) and other books.

Bois, Jules
- French author of novels, plays and poems, well-known in Paris before the 1914-1918 war. He was particularly interested in esotericism and feminism. During the Congress of Religions held on the occasion of the Universal Exposition in Paris in 1900, he received Vivekananda in his house.

- Hindu caste of priests.

Brahmo Samaj
- a liberal religious Hindu Movement founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy in 1830. It broke with the ritualism and the clericalism of orthodox Hinduism. In England it was introduced by Keshoba Chandra Sen.

Breteuil, Francois Marquis de
- made an arrangement for the theatre of "The Light of Asia", adapted from Sir Edward Arnold's poem.

Bridges, Sir Robert
- English poet (1844 - 1930), poet laureate from 1913 until his death. He published "The Testament of Beauty", a philosophical poem, on his 85th birthday.

Brown, Bishop William Montgomery
- was unfrocked by the Protestant Episcopal Church for heresy because of his book "Communism and Christianity". His defense was presented with mocking insolence.

Burbank, Luther
- American plant cultivator (1840-1926) who developed over 800 new varieties of flowers, fruits and vegetables by taking advantage of a plant's heredity and by influencing its surroundings.

Burkhardt, Fräulein Martha
- see biographical sketches.

- part of the Indian Empire until 1937- Forming a natural geographical entity in Southern Asia. Throughout its history it has been inward-looking; its capital was called "the center of the universe".

Caillet, Albert
- French author of several books e.g. "Hymnaire de ma Paredre" (Paris 1922) where he mentions his initiation in the Sufi Order. He founded the "Societe Unitive" which aimed at teaching the practice of the science of life in order to attain to individual and collective harmony. Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan was an honorary member of the "Societe Unitive" and in its review "Bulletin Mensuel" several of his early lectures are published.

- a Christian doctrine centering in the Sovereignty of God and the predestination of every human being either to a state of bliss in God's presence or to eternal perdition.

Carpenter, Edward
- English writer (1844-1929) revolting against the social and religious conventions of his time, became a traveling lecturer for the instruction of persons unable to attend universities. He wrote on the relation of art to life.

Carrel, Alexis
- French-American surgeon (1873-1944) who was awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1012 for his development of a new technique for sewing up blood-vessels end to end. He joined the Rockefeller Institute, New York, for medical research in 1906 and there mainly studied the transplantation of organs. Author of "Man, the Unknown" (1935) and other works.

Chaliapin, Feodor Ivanovitch
- famous Russian bass-singer (1873 - 1938), interpreter of "Boris Godunov" (opera by Mous-sorgski). He introduced the treasures of Slavonic music in Paris.

Chamar, chamur
- a stick of honor. One of the old distinctions used by Maharaja Krishnaraj of Mysore.

- melody consisting of a number of parts.

- gold canopy or umbrella. One of the old distinctions used by Maharaja Krishnaraj of Mysore.

- literally: lamp, light. Denoting a function in the Universal Worship of the Sufi Movement.

- sacred hymn, a measure in music.

- Universal Exhibition of Chicago 1803, held to celebrate the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus. Its main purpose was to show the progress of civilization and simultaneously a Parliament of Religions was organized.

Chishti Order
- founded by Khwaja Abu Ishaq of Syria, who migrated from Asia Minor and settled in Chisht (now called Shaqalan) in the Persian province of Khorasan. He was a disciple of Mimshad Ali Dinwari. A spiritual descendant of Khwaja Abu Ishaq, eighth in the line of succession, was Hazrat Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti, born in Persia in 1135 A.D. and brought up in Sanjar. In Samarqand and Bukhara he completed his religious education and was initiated in the Chishti Order by Khwaja Uthman Haruni in 1156. At Baghdad Muinuddin met the great Abdu-l-Qadir Jilani, the founder of the Qadiri Order and also Abu-n-Najib Suhrawardi, the renowned Saint of the Suhrawardi Order. At Tabriz he met the spiritual Teacher of Mawlana Jalaluddin Rumi: Shams Tabrizi. In 1191/1192 he came to Ajmer (Rajesthan, India) and established the center of the Order there. After having appointed Khwaja qutb Sahib as his spiritual successor, he passed away in 1229. His tomb in Ajmer still at the present time is visited by Muslims from all over India and Pakistan and is a well-known place of pilgrimage for Indians and people from many other countries of the world, of different religions and beliefs. The main idea of the Chishti Order which is one of the most important Sufi Orders in India, is the concept of the Unity of Being. Conversion to Islam was no prerequisite to initiation in this Order. Besides special practices, the efficacy of music to attune the heart to the Infinite, is emphasized.

Chitti, Babu Naidu
- author of "A Key to Hindu Music".

- name of Muslims in Malabar.

Christian Science
- created by Mrs. M. Eddy Baker. Denying the reality of matter, it strives toward the deliverance from error by a right understanding of God and man, which will cause all egoism, fear and illness to disappear.

Chromatics, International College of
- see International College of Chromatics.

Cingalese, Sinhalese
- largest ethnic group in Shri Lanka (Ceylon),

City College
- a publicly controlled co-educational institution in New York City.

Columbia University
- a private non-sectarian university in New York City. It dates from 1754 when it was granted its charter as King's College by King George II of England.

Congress of Paris 1914, Musical
- see Ecorcheville.

Connaughton, Mr. E. (Khalif)
- see biographical sketches

Coomaraswamy, Ananda K.
- (1877 Colombo - 1947 Boston). Leading Indian Art Historian. Keeper of the Indian, Persian and Muslim Art Section of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts from 1917-1947. Author of approx. 500 books and articles on Indian Art, such as: "The dance of Siva (1912); Myths of Hindus and Buddhists (1914); Buddha and the Gospel of Buddhism (1916); History of Indian and Indonesian Art (1927); Yaksas (1931); The Transformation of Nature in Art (1934); Am I my Brother's Keeper (1943)", etc.

- French psycho-therapist (1857-1926), invented a curative method by self-suggestion. Patients were instructed to repeat to themselves phrases such as "Every day in every way I am getting better and better".

Craig, Mr. D. (Sheikh)
- see biographical sketches.

Cushing, Mrs. Marya (Sheikha Khushi)
- see biographical sketches.

- center of attraction.

- a Hindustani melody – a syncopated tala (time measure), especially used with the dadra class of song.

- Indian Saint/poet (1544-1603), devotee of Shiva. The ideas expressed in his poetry are much like Kabir's.

Dalcroze, Emil Jaques
- Swiss composer (1865-1950). He taught eurythmics aiming at blending intellectual, emotional and muscular functions by means of music.

Darbar (durbar)
- Court.

Dargah (durgah)
- threshold, shrine, tomb, a Royal Court.

Darwin, Charles
- British naturalist and physiologist (1809-1882) who stated that all living beings follow the same line of evolution; they have not been created individually but have evolved by natural selection from more primitive species. His theory of evolution is called Darwinism.

Darwish (Dervish)
- see Faqir.

Dasei, festival of
- see Dassera.

Dassera, Dasehra
- a Hindu festival for the commemoration of the battle between Ram and Rawan, when Sita was restored to Ram; the victory of honor over dishonor, of right over wrong. The festival is named after Ram's father, the great king Dasarath (Ramayan).

Dayananda Saraswati
- see Arya Samaj.

Debussy, Claude
- French composer (1862-1918). He enlarged the scope of musical composition by introducing the use of exotic gamuts thus including Oriental musical characteristics in Western music. He also endeavored to preserve improvisation in music.

Dervish (Darwish)
- see Faqir.

Detraux, Yvonne
- French painter and disciple of Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan. She painted mainly landscapes and still life.

Devendranath Tagore
- see Tagore.

Dewan, diwan
- Prime Minister of the Governor of a State in India. Collection of poems.

- socially approved conduct in relation to one's fellow men and other living beings or superhuman powers. Law, morality and most of what we ordinarily mean by religion. Righteous way of living, as enjoined by the Sacred Scriptures.

Dhikr (see Zikr)

Dholuk, dholak
- a kind of drum, used in Northern India. It is cylindrical in shape, made of wood bored out of the solid and played with sticks or struck by the palm of the hand.

- see Thumri.

Dhurpad, dhrupad
- popular form of the Sanskrit word Dhruvapada, meaning an outstanding category of melodies in use in Northern and Southern India, a solemn religious song (see also Pallavi).

Dikshitar, dikshitr
- literally: one who has received initiation.

Dikshitar, Muttuswami
- Indian musician, contemporary of Tyagaraja (1776 - 1835). He invented a new system of Indian notation and composed a well-known hymn to Shri Ganesh in the raga hamsadhvani.

Din Dayal, Raja
- appointed painter to the Court of H.H. Mir Mahbub Ali Khan, the Nizam of Hyderabad.

Dowland, Miss J.E. (Khalifa Nargis)
- see biographical sketches.

Doyle, Sir A. Conan
- English physician born in Edinburgh (1859-1930), author of the Sherlock Holmes detective stories. He was honorary President of the International Spiritualist Federation and proprietor of "The Psychic Bookshop" in London.

Dulac, Edmond
- French born English artist (1882 - 1953), illustrator of fairy tales and also of the "Rubaiyat" of Omar Khayyam (1909) and of "The Arabian Nights" (1907).

Duncan, Isadora
- American dancer (1878 - 1925) whose movements were inspired by her observation of nature; she was the precursor of the modern free-dance school and created schools in Germany, France and Russia. Author of "Dancing in Relation to Religion and Love" (New York 1927), "My Life" (New York 1927) and other works.

Duncan Westbrook Jessie
- She rendered the "Diwan of Inayat Khan" into English and helped Pir-o-Murshid to translate other poems from the Urdu, Hindi and Persian. In 1913 her translation of the Diwan of Zebunnisa was published.

Dussaq, Monsieur E. (Khalif Talewar)
- see biographical sketches.

"East and West"
- a Movement founded in England by Mr. Gupta, son of Keshoba Chandra Sen. See also Brahmo Samaj.

Ecorcheville, Dr. Jules
- French music-lover (1872 - 1915) who contributed much to the bringing together of the different Music Societies in Europe. In June 1914 he organized the Congress of Music for the "Societe Internationale de Musique" in Paris and he was the editor of the Magazine of this Society, to which many famous musicians contributed.

Eddy Baker, Mrs. M.
- American lady (1821-1910) who founded "Christian Science" in 1902. Author of "Science and Health" based on an interpretation of texts from the Bible.

Egeling, Mrs. N. (Murshida Fazal Mai)
- see biographical sketches.

Eichthal, Madame M. C. la Baronne d' (Sheikha)
- see biographical sketches.

Ellis Island
- island in Upper New York Bay. In 1892 it became the site of the chief immigration station in the United States of America.

Engle, Mr. E. (Sheikh Fatha)
- see biographical sketches.

Ethnographical Museum
- Several Russian newspapers – among which the "Russian Newspaper" and "News" of 5th and 7th March, 17th, 20th, 27th and 30th April and 3rd May 1914 – write about Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan's lectures with musical illustrations, organized by the Ethnographical Section of the "Imperial Society of Amateurs in Physics". The lectures given in April and May were organized by the Russian Theosophical Society in Moscow. All these lectures were held in the old auditorium of the Polytechnical Museum in Moscow.

Eucken, Professor Rudolf
- German philosopher, promoter of "Idealistic Thought". He attached great importance to the inner life of man in whom nature and spirit meet. In 1908 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature. Author of "Der Sinn und Wert des Lebens" (The Meaning and Value of Life) (1908) "Können wir noch Christen sein" (Can we still be Christians) (1911) and "Rudolf Eucken, his Life, Work and Travels by himself" (1922).

- poor before God. Particularly the one who follows the path of contemplation; equivalent of the Persian "dervish".

Farinola, Marchesa
- under the Sufi name of Zebunnisa she wrote many poems and mystery plays, e.g. "Pierrot", "Trois Mysteres Franciscains", "L'Art Universel".

Fazal Manzil
- Literally: Blessed Abode; name of the house in Suresnes where Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan lived from 1922 to 1926.

Ford, Henry
- American automobile manufacturer (1863-1947) who revolutionized industry by his assembly methods. Author of "My Life and Work" (1922) and "Today and Tomorrow" (1926).

- an international fraternal Order of men, evolved from the medieval guilds of stonemasons. Members are bound to secrecy by an oath. It teaches spiritual morality and charity using the mason's working tools as symbols (see also sub Besant, Mrs. Annie).

Frossard, Henri, Jean
- Professor of vocal technics, author of various books on the culture of the voice, e.g. "La Science et l'Arte de la Voix" (Science and Art of the Voice), Paris 1927, and a complete handbook for the singer explaining how to form sounds and giving rules for correct breathing as well as for an hygienic life (diet, clothing, sleeping). To the purchaser of his book a free singing-lesson or voice-consultation was offered.

Furnee, Miss J. E. D. (Khalifa Sakina, later named Nekbakht)
- see biographical sketches.

- name of a dynasty of the Marathi kings.

Gaekwad, Maharaja Sayajirao of Baroda
- a great Indian reformer in the State of Baroda (1862-1939). Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan wrote about him in "The Sufi" of October 1920 that he was a patriot but at the same time appreciated many points of Western civilization, considering neither East nor West superior. Every reform had his full attention. He started mills and model farms, was interested in cattle breeding and introduced all sorts of crafts. He was also a pioneer of thought, philosophy and art, and the first school of comparative religion was founded in his Kingdom. In the following words some of his ideas find expression: "We ignorantly often take the form for the ideal. There is only one spirit of Truth, there is only one Truth behind all ideals."

Gaekwad, Shrimant Sampat Rao
- Bar-at-Law, brother of the Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad of Baroda. He constituted a private library of over 3,000 books in Gujerati and Marathi language, which he offered as a gift to the Central Library of Baroda, together with an adequate budget to enrich the stock.

Gandhi, Mahatma Mohandas Karamchand
- (1869 - 1948). Social reformer, philosopher and politician, leader of the Indian nationalist Movement, "The Father of modern India".

Ganesh, Shri
- elephant-headed Hindu God. He is the remover of obstacles and is the first God invoked on beginning a new enterprise.

- special song sung in the days of the festival of Shri Krishna.

- containing garbas, a book of garbas.

Garthawali, Granthwall
- containing the Granth, a book with parts of the Granth.

Gasparri, Cardinal
- Italian Roman Catholic Canon. During World War I (1914-1918) tried to end the hostilities and to aid the war-victims through diplomatic channels.

- singing, song.

- abode of singing, Academy of Music.

- a musical instrument.

Ghazal, gazal
- Hindustani melody, usually a love lyric.

Gibran, Kahlil
- poet, painter and philosopher (1883-1931). He was born in Syria, spent twenty years of his life in Lebanon and in 1912 made New York his permanent home. Among his many books are "The Prophet" (1923) and "Jesus the Son of Man" (1928). His books, illustrated by himself, were translated in thirty languages.

Goodenough, Miss L. (Murshida Sharifa)
- see biographical sketches.

Graeffe-van Gorckum, Madame E.
- see biographical sketches.

Grainger, Percy Aldridge
- Australian-American composer and pianist (1882-1961). He was interested in the collecting and the notation of English folk-songs.

- Sacred Book of the Sikhs.

Green, Miss Saintsbury (Murshida Sophia)
- see biographical sketches.

Gregory, Mrs. D.A. (Sheikha)
- see biographical sketches.

Griffith, R. T. H.
- well-known translator from the Sanskrit.

Gruner, Dr. O. G. (Khalif)
- see biographical sketches.

Guillon, Colonel
- see biographical sketches.

Guimet, Musee
- museum of religions in Paris having a remarkable collection of art from Japan, China and India. It was founded by Emile Guimet, a French scholar and industrialist (1836-1918).

Gujerat, Gujarat
- Province in Western India.

- language spoken in Gujerat.

- talented; also used as a title.

- spiritual Teacher, Murshid.

- city in the north of the Indian Province of Madhya Pradesh, native town of Tan Sen, famous singer at Akbar's Court, whose mausoleum at Gwalior attracts many visitors from India and abroad.

Hafiz, Khwaja Shamsuddin Muhammad
- Persian poet (2nd half 14th century) known for his piety and learning. It is told that when he died some of his verses were considered too heretic by the Muslim divines to allow him to be buried with the Muslim funeral prayers. In order to settle the dispute that followed, a child was directed to draw a couplet of Hafiz' verse. It said: "Do not retire from Hafiz' 'bait' (means : abode and couplet), for though he was a sinful man he goes to Paradise." The prayers were then read over his body. His poetry is remarkable for its beauty and sincerity. Among other works he wrote his "Diwan", a collection of poems.

- condition, ecstasy.

- a bird which can discard the water and drink the milk from a mixture of milk and water. It absorbs the essence and leaves what is of minor importance, i.e. it distinguishes between Heaven and earth.

Harding, W. G.
- 29th President of the United States of America elected in 1920. In 1921 he called the Washington Conference, where the governments of the big nations agreed to a certain limitation of armament.

Harish Chandra
- Legendary king, famous for his benevolence and loyalty. This theme is dealt with in the Markandeya Purana and is taken up by Rawachandra in a well-known play.

- from the Arabic, a title which may be used for any great man or woman out of respect.

Hedemann, Prof. Wilhelm
- German professor in Law at the University of Jena, born in 1878, Author of books on Law.

Hidayat Inayat Khan
- see Inayat Khan.

- The official language of North India, containing many words of Sanskrit origin.

- one of the six principal Hindustani ragas, named after the word hindol which means swing.

Hindustan, Hindusthan
- a persian word meaning India; properly restricted to the Northern provinces.

- belonging to India. The language of Hindustan.

Hoeber, Mrs. L. (Sheikha)
- see biographical sketches.

- a song of the Holi festival in Northern India.

Hoyack, Louis
- Dutch scholar. One of Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan's early mureeds much inspired by his teachings. He wrote many books covering a vast field of thought. His personality as well as his work is well rendered by the following poem written by his friend, the Dutch editor Nico Kluwer, for Hoyack's 60th Birthday (Translation) : Louis Hoyack I built myself a system ready made Which has Inayat's teaching as its base, Yet something new and great was wrought by me, On which Hoyack's proud emblem shines. On the Master's Message I gave my own comment, To Western minds I opened the Quran, In Galilea I brought to life a man, You'll find it all in my works' contents. Still my own doctrine daily I amend, In which I'm caught as a spider in its web, My view on boredom I expressed. And yet my deep unconscious self implores: Deliver me, oh Lord, from system and doctrine, This is my soul's true yearning and my aim. The books referred to in the poem are: "De Boodschap van Inayat Khan" (The Message of Inayat Khan), "De onbekende Korn" (The unknown Quran), "Een Man stond op in Galilea" (A Man arose in Galilea) and "De Philosophie van de Verveling" (The Philosophy of Boredom).

- presence of a superior authority. Highness.

- capital of the Indian province of Madya Pradesh. From the arab word "hyder" meaning lion, and the Persian word "abad" meaning inhabited, populated, city, town. It was the capital of the Nizams (see Nizam) and was founded in 1591.

Hypnotism, hypnosis
- a sleeplike state during which the subject is submitted to suggestions; also used for therapeutic purposes.

- Literary: one who is followed or imitated; guide, leader, head of a religion (especially of the Muslim religion), reader of a mosque.

Inayat Khan, Hidayat Murshid Zade
- Pir-o-Murshid's youngest son, who composed several musical works, e.g. "La Monotonia" and "The Message Symphony".

Inayat Khan, Noorunnisa Pir Zadi
- Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan's eldest daughter, who wrote stories for children, e.g. "Twenty Jataka Tales" (London 1939, The Hague 1975).

Inayat Khan, Vilayat Pir Zade
- Pir-o-Murshid's eldest son, who wrote "The Light of Truth" (a play, 1932), "Stufen einer Meditation" (1962), "Towards the One" and recently "Samadhi with Open Eyes" (1977) and several other works.

International College of Chromatics
- founded in London, for the study of the science of color. It gave instruction in the use of color in architecture, archaeology, costumes, ethnology, etc.

Irwin, Beatrice
- author of "The Gates of Light" – a record of progress in the engineering of color and light (London 1930) and a collection of poems called "The Pagan Trinity" (London & New York 1912).

Ivanov, Viatoslav
- leading Russian poet of the Russian Symbolist Movement (1866-1949). He lived in St. Petersburg where he gathered the important Russian literary world. His chief poetical work is "Cor Ardens'" (1911).

- music played on a number of cups containing various quantities of water. By dipping the fingers in the water and rubbing them around the rims of the cups, 18 notes in two octaves can be produced.

Jami, Maulana  Nuruddin
- Persian scholar, mystic and poet (1414-1492) author of "The Seven Thrones", a poetical work including the story of Yusuf and Zulaikha, and other works.

- a song sung by Kanarese Singers and consisting only of the third part of a certain melody, viz. charanam.

Jilani, Abdu'l Qadir
- Sufi lecturer (1077-1166) with many disciples all over Iraq, who lived in Baghdad and gave his name to the Sufi Order of the Qadiris. In some parts of India the Qadiris celebrate the Urs of their founder with a ceremony in which a large green flag is carried in procession. With torches and music the standard is then put up.

Jinn, djinn, genius
- generally explained in Quran as a spirit or an invisible or hidden force, created from a flame of fire. In "The Soul, whence and whither" Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan says: "The genius is an entity with a mind, but not such a mind as that of man; a mind more pure, more clear, which is illuminated by the light of intelligence."

- Muslim sanctuary in Mecca, built by Abraham.

- Hebrew tradition, esoteric Jewish mysticism claiming secret knowledge of the unwritten Torah, which God communicated to Moses.

- Indian mystic poet (1440 - 1518). His poems were translated by Rabindranath Tagore. Hindus and Muslims both claim him as their Saint. He taught ardent personal devotion instead of ritual and formalism.

- Kaiser Wilhelm (William) II (1859-1941), Emperor of Germany from 1888 to 1918 when he was forced to abdicate toward the end of World War I. He took refuge in the Netherlands where he lived a retired life.

Kala Bhawan
- temple of art. A center for dance, drama, music and plastic art.

Kalgi, Kalaggai, Kalagi
- ornament on the turban: a gold circlet with a plume. One of the old distinctions used by Maharaja Krishnaraj of Mysore.

- name of a celebrated poet between the 1st and 6th century A.D. – Literally: the Goddess Durga (Kali), slave (dasa).

Kalingda raga
- a very popular raga, especially for religious folk-songs and also for earnest songs of devotion.

- language spoken in Mysore.

- see Qawwal.

- the law of action and the consequences it produces in the present or in a future birth.

- from "Karnat" in the South of India. The Karnatic race are Dravidians and the Karnatic music is their music produced in Southern India.

- peninsula on the West-coast of India, in the State of Gujerat.

- lit. : poet and sage.

Keshoba (Keshab), Chandra Sen Babu
- one of the leaders of the Brahmo Samaj.

Keyserling, Count Hermann Alexander
- German philosopher (1880-1946) deeply interested in Oriental philosophy. At Darmstadt he established the "School of Wisdom", which sought to blend the best of Eastern and Western thought. Author of "Reisetagebuch eines Philosophen" (Travel Diary of a Philosopher) published in 1919.

Khadava raga
- uses five notes in both ascent and descent, like the Odava raga.

- esoteric title conferred by Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan upon some of his mureeds.

Khan, Ali
- Cousin of Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan (1881 - 1958), musician and healer, one of the "Royal Musicians of Hindustan".

Khan, Sayyad Ahmad
- (1817 - 1897), founder of the Aligarh College, India, and author of a series of essays on the life of Muhammad, representing Islam as the most tolerant religion.

- meaning: family, lineage, dynasty.

- word of Persian origin. A convent for Sufi recluses; a convent, a monastery.

Khatidja, Khadija
- originally with "d", but in India generally pronounced as a "t".

Khayal, khyal
- style of classical music of Northern India, developed in the 17th and 18th century. It is a short melody, like the dhrupad, lengthened by repetitions and variations; a light melodic air.

Khayyam, Omar
- His real name was Giyasuddin Abulfath Omar ibn Ibrahim al Khayyami, a famous Persian mathematician, astronomer, free-thinker and poet. In his own days he was best known as a scientist, now in the West as a poet. Among other things he wrote the "Rubaiyat". He died at Nishapur in 1123.

Khilafet Movement
- a Movement in favor of the Sultan of Turkey, recognized by the Indian Muslims as their Khalif and as suzerain of the Holy City (Mecca). After the peace treaty of 1918 his position was greatly weakened in spite of allied promises to the contrary. This was considered humiliating and against the honor of Islam. In March 1920 the cause of the Khalifat was pleaded in London by several representatives of India but in vain. Thereupon the All India Muslim League joined the non-cooperation Movement of Mahatma Gandhi.

Khusru, Amir
- Indian poet, singer and musician. He was probably the first to introduce the sitar and among the first to use the Urdu language for his literary work. A disciple of Nizamuddin Auliya of Delhi, he died short after his Murshid and was buried close to him.

- a form of melody from Southern India.

- literally: destiny, fate. Play in three acts by Edward Knoblauch after an Arabic tale. The "Royal Musicians of Hindustan" were engaged to perform their music as an intermezzo in a bazar-scene.

Kjösterud Miss S. (Sheikha)
- see biographical sketches.

Krishna, Shri
- Divine incarnation of Vishnu, whose teachings are given in the Bhagavad-Gita.

- is in the South of India what a khayal is in the North. The wording may be either sacred or secular and the main emphasis is on the musical elaboration. Most of Tyagaraja's songs are Krities.

Kshatriya, kshatra
- belonging to the second or military caste of the Hindus.

- Opera by Leo Delibes, first performed in Paris in 1883. The scene is laid in India and in order to introduce some touches of realism the "Royal Musicians of Hindustan" were invited to perform their music in a bazar-scene. The contrast between the Western idea of orientalism in Delibes' music and the genuine Indian art was obvious.

Laszlo de Lombos
- English painter (1860-1037) born in Hungary, who gained international fame for his portraits of eminent men.

Laya, lay
- style of expression in rhythm, time movement. Tune.

League of Nations
- International Organization established in Geneva by the peace-treaties ending World War I. It functioned from 1920 till 1946.

Leon, Professor Henri M.
- born in Paris in 1856, he was professor in English literature and in geology at the Imperial Ottoman University. In 1912 he went to England where he was appointed General Secretary of the "Societe Internationale de Philologie, Sciences et Beaux Arts".

Lewis, Samuel L.
- (1896-1971). He studied Oriental philosophy and was received in several Oriental esoteric schools such as Zen, Yoga and Sufi schools. He believed in speaking openly about his experiences and initiations and in bringing peace through the dance. He created numerous dances – partly inspired by Ruth St. Denis – representative of all religions. Author of "Toward Spiritual Brotherhood" (San Francisco 1972) and of mystical poems.

Liberal Catholic Church
- see Besant, Mrs. Annie.

Liberty, Statue of
- name of a colossal statue in New York harbor, originally called "Liberty enlightening the World". It was a gift from France to the U.S.A. in 1886 and was conceived by the sculptor Bartholdi. Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan made a poem on this statue.

Lincoln, Abraham
- 16th President of the U.S.A., elected in 1860. In 1863 he issued the emancipation proclamation abolishing slavery.

LLoyd, Mrs. Gladys I. (Sheikha Kefayat)
- see biographical sketches.

Lodge, Sir Oliver
- English Physicist (1851 - 1940). He was the first to suggest that the sun might be a source of radio-waves. After 1910 he became prominent in psychic research.

- Licentiate of the Royal Academy of Music.

Luther Burbank
- see Burbank, Luther.

Madani, Sayyad Abu Hashim
- Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan's Murshid, a Sufi of the Chishti-line. In 1923 after her journey through India Murshida Rabia Martin wrote: "The blessed Murshid of our Murshid Inayat Khan was Sayyad Abu Hashim Madani, who was born in Madras. He was one of the most profound and blessed of sages. His sacred remains are near the Puran Pul (old bridge) in the compound of Mian Paisa Dargah at Hyderabad. There are three tombs there in a row. This man was of a very gentle disposition, soft and kindly, yet inwardly powerful. He had an almost hypnotic ability to purify the minds and hearts of all he contacted through his inner purity and perfection of personality."

- the center of affairs, the minister. A title given by Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan to the Secretary of the Esoteric School.

- name of Shiva or Vishnu, meaning: the great God.

Mahajan Mandal
- society of the bankers' caste; caste of the Mahajani; society of great people. A magazine published in Baroda, in which an article in Gujerati about Maula Bakhsh by his grandson Inayat Khan appeared in 1806.

- a Sanskrit word meaning: great king. A title given to ruling chiefs of the States of India, sometimes applied to persons of high rank and to holy men.

- large-minded, noble, eminent, one of great, divine soul.

Maheboob Khan
- see biographical sketches.
- (Mahebboob Khan, brother of Inayat Khan; also the name of the Nizam of Hyderabad, Mir Mahbub Ali Khan)

- one whom God has drawn to Himself, one absorbed in God. Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan says: "The majzub is the lover of God, who does everything to hide his love of God before his fellow men, so that it confuses them and he is called by them foolish or insane. He does not care, he is a harmless person and his love of God gives him a great power."

- garland.

- a Dravidian language spoken in the South of India.

- an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Maharashtra (south of Gujerat in the west-central part of India, including Bombay). Marathi literature begins in the 13th century with a number of poets drawing their inspiration from the worship of Vishnu.

Martin, Mrs. A. (Murshida Rabia)
- see biographical sketches.

- torch. One of the old distinctions of Maharaja Krishnaraj of Mysore.

Masnavi, Mathnavi
- main poetical work of  Jalaluddin Rumi.

- see Freemasonry.

Mata Hari
- in Malay language meaning: eye of the day. Born Margaretha Geertruida Zelle, in 1876 in the Netherlands. She became a dancer and – invited by Mr. Emile Guimet – she performed oriental dances at the Musee Guimet in Paris with considerable success. During World War I (1914 - 1918) she was executed as a spy by the French but it is still a question if she really was guilty.

Maula Bakhsh
- Inayat Khan's grandfather. An article written by Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan about him, was published in the magazine "The Sufi" of September 1915. The name means "God-gifted" (Maula – lord, master; Bakhsh – a persian word meaning giving, giver.)

- a title given to learned persons.

- lordship.

- making, art, conveying at the same time the sense of illusion. As a vedic term it is used for the cosmic illusion which makes the Only Being appear as a multitude of beings.

Maya civilization
- one of the great civilizations of Mexico and Central America. The Maya were famous for their astronomers and mathematicians.

Mehr Bakhsh
- brother-in-law of Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan. Here Bakhshe is a Turkish word meaning Sheikh.

- was for a long time the term for what is now called hypnosis.

Meyer-de Reutercrona, Mrs. H. (Sheikha)
- see biographical sketches.

Miller, Mrs. R. C. (Khalifa Mushtari)
- see biographical sketches.

"Minqar-i Musiqar"
- a book on music in Hindustani, written by Inayat Khan about 1903 and issued in 1912 by the Indian Press, Allahabad. Literally: the beak of the sound-bird, the phoenix of music.

Mir Mahbub Ali Khan
- H.E.H. (His Exalted Highness) the Nizam of Hyderabad. He succeeded in 1869 at the age of three as the ninth Nizam and was invested with full powers in 1884.

Miran Datar/Ditta
- a Sufi Saint at whose tomb in Ujjain in Central India possessed people are often healed. His name has the meaning of "great healer".

Mitchell, Edgar Austin (Shahbaz)
- (1877 - 1939). He was a journalist and leader writer of the "Southern Daily Echo" of Southampton and wrote under the nom de plume of "Townsman". For over 20 years "Mike" as his many friends used to call him, was an active member of the Sufi Movement after he met Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan in London during the war (1914 - 1918). He worked both as a preacher, a lecturer and a literary worker to spread the Sufi ideals. He wrote a book: "Southampton Notes", which has become a collector's piece.

Mogul, Mughal
- Dynasty of Mongol rulers of India, founded in 1526 by Babar, a descendant of Tamerlane. Under Akbar the Great the Mogul Empire embraced Central and Northern India. Bahadur Shah II was the last of the Mogul Emperors and was deposed by the British in 1857.

Morax, Rene
- Swiss author of poems and of plays for the puppet-theatre.

- a barrel-shaped drum about two feet long with a girth of about three feet in the center.

- a respectful title or address to natives in the Tamil provinces of India.

Muhur, muhr
- a gold coin of the value of 16 rupees, the same as an ashrafi.

Muinuddin Chishti
- see Chishti Order.

- liberation from the bondage of the world, the goal of spiritual practices.

Müller, Friedrich Max
- German Orientalist (1823-1900) who settled in Oxford, England, in 1848, specialized in Sanskrit. He translated many Sanskrit and Pali texts and wrote among other things "Essays on Hindi Philosophy".

- magistrate.

- from the Arabic, meaning desirous, willing, a follower, called chela among the Hindus.

- from the Arabic, meaning guide, a spiritual teacher, head of a religious Order, called Guru among the Hindus and Starets in the Russian Church.

Musee Guimet
- see Guimet, Musee.

Musharaff Moulamia Khan
- youngest brother of Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan, (1895 - 1967) author of "Pages in the Life of a Sufi" (London 1932 and 1971), containing memories of his youth. One of the "Royal Musicians of Hindustan".

- also known as the revolt of the Cipayes, in 1857 when the different regiments of this militia, mainly consisting of Hindus, rebelled against the British rulers who ignored their hereditary customs. Probably some foreign countries took advantage of this situation and by stirring up the national feelings of the Indian people, the existing dissatisfaction developed into a fierce and widespread mutiny.

- a caste of Brahmans.

Nanak, Guru
- founder of Sikhism (1469 - 1539), a religious Movement which has its roots in Hinduism. The Sikhs follow the idea of joining the Hindus and Muslims in love and devotion to God and service to man. Their sacred Scripture, the Adi Grantha Sahab, is a compilation of teachings and songs of Guru Nanak and his successors and of the Saints in the Sikh Movement.

- a leader, an adjutant. A title given by Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan to some of his mureeds.

- lived between the 7th and 11th century A.D. He wrote a Sanskrit treatise on music which was discovered in 1919 at Gadwal and which is known as the Sangita Makaranda. It was edited and published under the auspices of the Maharaja Gaekwad of Baroda and has proved a most valuable contribution to the history of Indian music.

Narayan, Shri Guru
- born in Malabar in 1854, he was first a wandering monk and became later a famous spiritual leader in South India and Ceylon. As a spiritual and social reformer he showed that the principles of Vedanta could be applied. His message was one of all-embracing unity: "One God, one Religion, one Caste. There being only one Eternal Reality, dedicated service to That is the true religion; and since all men are capable of that service, and since all people, all life and all things move and have their existence by that One, all separateness and division into race, caste, color and creed are nothing but illusion foisted on the minds of men by ignorance and forgetfulness of this sole Universal Reality."

Narsiji, Narsingi
- a Maharashtrian Hindu Saint living in the 16th century, by whom Mahatma Gandhi was influenced.

Narsiji, Narsingi
- the name of the hereditary Guru of the (Mandir) Hindu temple in Baroda.

- name of a festival in India, meaning nine nights.

- title of a provincial governor of the Mogul Empire. Viceregent, deputy, lord.

- gift.

- Kingdom North of India in the Himalaya region. Its capital is Katmandu.

Newbolt, Sir Henri
- English poet (1862-1938) best known for his patriotic verse. He also edited anthologies of English poetry.

- meaning; no difference. Extinction, annihilation, eternal bliss. Realization of the soul's freedom.

- from the Arabic meaning order, arrangement, governor, composer. A title originally conferred by the Mogul Emperors upon the ruler of the State of Hyderabad, in the Deccan, India, and held by his descendants.

- Governor of the kingdom.

Noorunnisa Inayat Khan
- see Inayat Khan, Noorunnisa.

- Nurvara Eliya of Ceylon (Shri Lanka).

Odava raga, audava raga
- a raga which only uses five notes in both ascent and descent.

Olcott, Colonel Henry Steel
- see Theosophical Society.

- musical composition for chorus, orchestra and solo voices on a sacred subject, first introduced in the 16th century in Europe, in the Church in Rome.

Order of the Star in the East
- see Besant, Mrs. Annie.

- the old Ayodhya, a holy place of the Hindus, the birth place of Ram, in the North-West of India.

Paderewski, Ignace Jean
- Polish composer and pianist (1860-1941). He interrupted his musical career to work for the reestablishment of an independent Polish State after World War I and became its first President in 1919.

- a sort of drum with two heads covered with parchment.

- a section of dhurpad as it is known in Southern India, which contains the main subject and usually possesses a well-defined rhythm. A chorus.

Panama Canal World Fair
- a Congress of religious philosophy at the Panama Pacific International Exposition, San Francisco 29th - 31st July 1915. The honorary President was Rabindranath Tagore. There was a Christian day, a Hindu day and an Oriental day. Murshida Rabia Martin spoke on the latter about "Sufi Philosophy" (published in the magazine "The Sufi" of November 1915).

Pandit (pundit)
- learned man.

Panjab (Punjab)
- five waters or rivers. A province in the North-West of India.

Pariah, paria
- a person of the lowest Hindu caste formerly known as "untouchables" but named "Harijans" – children of God – by Mahatma Gandhi.

- a Persian. A follower of Zarathushtra, especially found in the West of India.

- name of Iranian tribes in what is nowadays the North West of Pakistan and Afghanistan and of their descendants who immigrated to India in the 15th century. There they formed a dynasty that ruled in Delhi, and also groups of land-owners and martial tribes. During the British rule the frontier Pathans were the only people of the subcontinent never wholly subjugated. Due to this record of independence Pathans have enjoyed the reputation of being a knightly and war-waging class among the Indo-Islamic community. "Dr. Pathan" (Alaoddin Khan) adopted this name when in England he needed a family-name and Inayat Khan adopted the same name during his musical tour (see References).

Paul, Saint
- great Apostle of Christianity. Very little is certain about the historical person of St. Paul. Of the Letters ascribed to him, which are known to be anterior to the Gospels, a certain number is also attributed to several other authors. Equally little is known about the origin of the Gospels, which have come down to us in their actual form only about or after the year 200. A study of this epoch reveals very scarce and contradicting data of the facts and of the spiritual climate in which Gospels and Letters were written. It might therefore be interesting and important to take Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan's view on the matter into consideration.

- a word used by Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan to indicate the head of the Brotherhood (an activity of the Sufi Movement). The word in Urdu means: assistant, deputy, manager.

Pickthal, Marmaduke
- English Muslim who translated the Quran: "The meaning of the Glorious Koran, an Explanatory Translation", published in London in 1930 and reprinted in 1948.

Pieri, Comtesse M. L.
- see biographical sketches.

Pillay, T. Lakshmana
- author of "Travancore Music and Musicians". (Trivandrum 1918.)

- Persian word, meaning old, the oldest, a holy man. A spiritual Guide, the founder or head of a religious Order, the one who helps individuals towards the unfoldment of the soul.

- meaning Pir and Murshid.

Pool, Rev. John J.
- Principal of the International College of Chromatics, author of "Color and Health" (London 1919).

- ancient name of a musical composition (song), used in the 13th century.

- popular language developed from the Sanskrit.

Premanand, Bharati Baba
- see Bharati Baba, Premanand.

- belonging to ancient times. Sacred Scriptures supposed to have been compiled by the poet Vyasa and containing Hindu theology and mythology.

Pyaro miyan
- Urdu translation of the Arabic "Mahbub Khan"; Pyar – Mahbub (beloved), miyan – Khan (a title of respect).

- musician, singer. Singer or player of spiritual songs at the Sama and at other occasions, especially during Urs celebrations.

- the sacred Scripture of the Muslims, containing the divine revelations as received by the Prophet Muhammad and faithfully and promptly taken down by his followers.

- a renowned woman Sufi-Saint of Basra (Iraq) who lived in the 8th century A.D. and about whose ascetic saintly life many stories and anecdotes are known.

Rabindranath Tagore
- see Tagore, Rabindranath.

- a pattern of music designed in a certain pitch of the scale, which is improvised upon by the artist. Literally: passion; from ancient times each raga has been associated with particular passions and emotions.

Raga Hamsadhwani
- a South Indian raga.

- negro syncopated music.

Rahusen, Miss (Morad)
- painter and illustrator among other things of children-books.

Railway Institute
- erected buildings for the Railway Companies in India for the benefit of their employees, equipped with a reading-room and a central hall which could be hired for performances.

- a title of hereditary princes of the Hindus.

Raja Yoga
- the king of yoga. The yoga of control of the mind. Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan calls it the yoga of the path of learning from life's experiences.

- royal garden.

Ram Das
- Sri Samarth Ramdas, (1608-1681 AD) Marathi saint, poet and religious leader. His works include Manache Shlok (Verses to the Mind),  Dasbodh and Aatma Ram.

Ram Mohan Roy
- see Brahmo Samaj.

Rama, Shri, Shri Ram
- seventh incarnation of Vishnu, whose story is told in the Ramayana, the famous Sanskrit epic poem. (Sanskrit Rama, Hindi Ram)

Ramakrishna, Shri
- a God-realized Sage (1834-1886) who lived an ascetic life in Dakshineswar (Calcutta) and attracted many disciples. He considered the different religions as one.

- a friend and admirer of Inayat Khan in Hyderabad (Deccan), India. In a letter dated ioth December 1926 he wrote to Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan: "You will be pleased to learn that during your absence the Government of India have been pleased to confer upon me the title of Khan Sahib in 1916 and on the first of January 1926 I got the distinction of Khan Bahadur. At present I am a special Bench Magistrate Honorary of Secunderabad."

Ranz des Vaches
- "Ranz" from the German word "Reihe" meaning row, range, series and in this case probably "flock"; originally a melody without words, a kind of improvisation used by shepherds to gather their flock.

- necklace of gems. Album of songs by Inayat Khan (about 1903).

- religious revolution, going on simultaneously in several countries of Europe, which led to the formation of the Protestant Church in the 16th century.

Reps, Paul (Saladin)
- an American mureed of Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan, author of "Zen Flesh, Zen Bones" (Tokyo 1958) and "Zen Telegrams" (Tokyo 1959).

Rissalat, Risalat
- Persian word from arabic origin: Message, Apostleship. Muhammad was the seal of Rissalat ...: The discussion centers on "Khatim al Mursalin" (Seal of the Apostles), used in Indian Sufism to combine the finality and supremacy of the prophethood and religious law of Muhammad as "Khatim al Nabiyyin" (Seal of the prophets) with the continuity of inspired spiritual experience – one of the oldest problems in Islam. "Rassul" thus primarily becomes the highest initiatic stage and esoteric degree rather than a socio-religious apostleship : "His words, the law; his message, the wisdom; his being, that peace." Inayat Khan further contributes a concept of the "aspects" of messengership: those of message-bearing and prophethood have been terminated; now only that of teacher remains ("Unity of Religious Ideals", first ed., p. 282-283). The Rissalat-concept is fused with the gnostic "NurMuhammadi" ("Spirit of Guidance") hence "the light of Rissalat shines before him" (i.e. the Sufi mystic) "in every being and thing in the universe"; Shahada, the final revelation, implies that "every soul has the source of the divine message within itself". Further, it is "the prophets' words" that are "the seals upon the secret of God"; hence, the "Kamal" (perfect) mystic may become entitled to open them as long as spiritual perception and transmission remain "without claim", i.e. of modifying revelations and religious law.

- garment, conferred by Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan upon certain of his mureeds, chosen for a certain function.

Rockefeller Foundation, Institute
- philanthropic organization, founded in 1901 by the American industrialist John Davison Rockefeller (1839-1937) for the promotion of knowledge throughout the world.

Roshan chauki
- illuminated platform, the place where the musicians were playing and singing.

Rosing, Wladimir
- Russian tenor singer. He was a member of the Imperial Opera in Moscow, then a concert singer in London. He organized the opera-season in London in 1915.

Royal Academy of Music
- established in London in 1823. L.R.A.M. indicates that somebody is a Licentiate of the Royal Academy of Music.

Royal Musicians of Hindustan
- as Inayat Khan, his two brothers, his cousin and Rama Swami called themselves. They also called themselves "The servants of the Sufi-Order". The Indian Magazine wrote about them: "The Royal Musicians of Hindustan have persevered in establishing the Order of Sufism by touring throughout the world. They appeared in strange lands, wearing their native dress and playing their own instruments, regardless of the response, people or place. They expressed Sufism in the realm of music and have devoted their profession to the Order as a means of support. With lectures and concerts they have attracted the prepared minds to the Truth of Sufism."

- a quatrain, a poem by Omar Khayyam.

Rumi, Jalaluddin
- a Sufi mystic poet (1207-1273): born in Balkh (Afghanistan) he lived in Konia and other places in Asia Minor. In 1244 he met his spiritual Guide, the wandering dervish Shams Tabriz. He founded the Order of the Maulawi dervishes (Mevlevis). Rumi's famous works are the "Masnavi" and the "Discourses" or "Fihi ma fihi".

Rummel, Walter
- a virtuosos, conductor and composer (1887-1953), well-known in Paris in the period before World War I (1914-1918), a friend of Debussy and of Isadora Duncan.

Russell, Edmund
- American scholar of Oriental art and philosophy, poet and portrait-painter. He has painted many famous people in America and Europe. He visited India several times. The Royal Musicians of Hindustan played at his renowned studio-receptions, both in New York and in Paris.

Sadi, Muslihuddin
- Persian Sufi poet (13th century A.D.) born at Shiraz. He received instruction from Abdul Qadir Jilani and Suhrawardi (see Jilani and sub Chishti Order). He called his books "Bustan" – place of fragrance and "Gulistan'' – rosegarden, and Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan said about Sadi that in simple language, without mystification, he has tried to give man a helping hand towards the development of his personality, explaining how the heart can be turned into a flower. His poetry is full of wit and intelligence.

Sabha, shabha
- public hall, meeting-place, council.

- lord, master, sir.

St. Denis, Ruth
- founded the "Ruth St. Denis School of Dancing and its Related Arts" in Los Angeles after having made two tours from coast to coast in the United States of America and given performances in Paris, London, Vienna and Berlin. Among the subjects of her repertoire were: Radha, the Cobras, the Yogi, the Incense, and Egyptian and Japanese productions. Author of "Lotus Light", a collection of poems (New York 1932) and "An Unfinished Life", an autobiography (New York and London 1939).

Salar Jung, Sir (Jang)
- was appointed Minister of the State of Hyderabad in 1853 and was regent during the minority of H.E.H. the Nizam Mir Mahbub Ali Khan. He was an efficient and hard-working man whose ambition it was to prove the independence of the State. He reorganized the entire system of government.

- hearing, ear, a term applied to a special musical gathering of Sufis, in which the hearing of harmonious sounds moves the heart and kindles the fire of love for God.

- state of consciousness in which the mind becomes identified with the object of meditation. Sufis call it hahut.

- meeting, assembly, society.

- assembly, meeting.

- a raga containing all the notes of the octave in both ascent and descent.

- music, song of many voices, symphony.

Sangit Sammilani
- musical Society.

Sa ra gam
- like do re mi, the notation of a melody on which the musician improvises.

Saraswati Davananda
- see Arya Samaj.

- chaplet of pearls for the turban. One of the old distinctions of Maharaja Krishnaraj of Mysore.

Sauvrezis, Alice
- composer and pianist. She organized artistic evenings consisting partly of authentic Oriental music and partly of Occidental music inspired by the Orient.

Sayaji Garbawali
- name of a book of songs composed by Inayat Khan and dedicated to the Maharaja of Baroda whose name is "Sayaji". See also "Garbawali".

Sayyad, Sayyed
- a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad, a title, lord, chief.

Sayyad Abu Hashim Madani
- see Madani, Sayyad Abu Hashim.

Sayyad Ahmad Khan
- see Khan, Sayyad Ahmad.

Sayyad Hassan Bilgrami
- see Bilgrami, Sayyad Hassan.

Scott, Dr. A. B. (Khalif)
- see biographical sketches.

Scott, Cecil
- should probably be Cyril Scott, a friend of Percy Grainger, composer, and author of books on occult subjects.

Scriabine, Alexander Nicolajevitch
- Russian composer and pianist (1871 - 1915). He had a religious and mystical conception of art and believed in the redeeming nature of music. He was interested in Oriental philosophy which inspired his compositions "Poem of Ecstasy", "Divine Poem" and others. He consecrated the last years of his life to a work that united music, poetry, dance, light-show and perfume, culminating in the ecstatic return of the cosmos to the Only Being.

- vibrato on the instrument, thrill.

- a poetic work by Kalidasa (in verse).

Shams-i-Tabrez, Tabriz
- a dervish Sufi mystic and poet who became the spiritual Guide of Jalaluddin Rumi. The latter dedicated "The Diwan of Shams-i-Tabriz" to his Murshid.

- one of the greatest philosophers of India, exponent of the Advaita Vedanta (8th or 9th century A.D.).

- scripture, science.

- a learned man.

Shaughnessy, Mr. R. (Sheikh)
- see biographical sketches.

- disciple, mureed.

- the disintegrating or destroying and reproducing Deity who is the third God of the Hindu Trinity. Literally the name means: "in whom all things lie".

- an interval smaller than the semi-tone.

- visible. The vision of the God of Truth seen by Himself. Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan says in "Manifestation": "the fourth step of the consciousness, viz. its conscious experience of life from the depth to its utmost height."

- follower of the religion taught by Guru Nanak.

Sirkar, Sarkar
- chief, master, Your Honor.

Sirkar Ali
- Your Eminent Honor.

- a stringed instrument, smaller than the vina, without the curved neck and gourd of the vina and with a single bridge. The strings are made of steel and brass. The Karnatic sitar is somewhat different from the sitar used in Northern India.

Skrine, F. H.
- wrote "The Heart of Asia" in collaboration with E. D. Ross.

Societe Unitive
- see Caillet, Albert.

Söderblom, Nathan
- Swedish Lutheran theologian. In 1914 he became archbishop of Uppsala and in 1030 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace. He promoted unity among the Christian Churches and was a propagator of the Oecumenic Movement.

- Paris University, founded by Robert de Sorbon (1201 - 1274) as an Establishment for poor students to study Theology. In 1554 the Sorbonne became the official meeting-place of the faculty of Theology. In 1808 its buildings were given to the Paris University.

- Doctrine of the existence of the spirit as a substantial reality ; also belief in spirit-communication. It spread from the United States of America to several countries in Europe.

Stam, Miss D. (Kismet)
- see biographical sketches.

Statue of Liberty
- see Liberty, Statue of.

Steer, Janette
- English actress and popular lecturer, who wrote articles about "the Woman's Part in the Life of the British Nation".

Steindamm, Dr.
- see biographical sketches.

Steiner, Dr. Rudolf
- see Anthroposophy.

Stolk, Mr. A. van (Sheikh Sirkar)
- see biographical sketches.

Strangways, Arthur Henry Fox
- author of "The Music of Hindostan" with illustrations and musical notes (Oxford 1914)-

- Chief of a province. Collector of taxes. A title.

Sudra, shudra
- a man of the fourth or servile caste of the Hindus.

- "Sufism is the religious philosophy of love, harmony and beauty. It is the essence of religions." As a School its descent and tradition go back to the earliest times, and can be traced from Egypt, through the Hebrew prophets, spreading later to Persia and throughout the East. The Sufi Message descends from this School and yet is new. "It can only be explained as a certain light thrown upon life. It is the process by which this light, the divine inheritance of man, is unveiled." (The words between quotation marks are from Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan.)

- also called Urs by Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan. The idea of holding a Summerschool was first carried out in 1921, when Pir-o-Murshid gathered a small group of mureeds from different countries at Wissous, near Paris, where he was then living. From 1922 on Summerschools took place at Suresnes and more and more mureeds attended. A letter was sent out explaining the object of the Summerschool as being "a meeting of a sacred character which takes place at the time when Pir-o-Murshid is taking a time of tranquility after all the months spent in spreading his ideas throughout the world. During this season Murshid gives a part of his time to talks, meditation and interviews with his mureeds. . . ."

- Indian Saint-poet.

Surendra Mohan Tagore
- see Tagore, Surendra Mohan.

Sur taranga
- a stringed instrument, probably similar to the sur behar, which has a similar shape as the sitar but a finer tone and wider range. This instrument is found in Bengal.

- going to or being in Heaven. Heaven.

- from the Sanskrit svar, note, notes within a certain raga.

Swiss Guards
- Swiss troops forming part of the military house of Charles VIII, king of France (1496) and his successors. From the 15th to the 19th century numerous Swiss soldiers served in foreign armies, especially in France. Today still exists a corps of Pontifical Swiss guards at the Vatican (Italy).

- sacred relics, sacred gift, looking for a blessing by partaking of rose petals or food which has been exposed on the tombs of saints or other holy places. In Hindi: prasad.

Tabla, dabla
- a pair of small drums, one of larger size and one of medium size, each one with one head, which are played with the full hand and the fingers.

Tagore, Devendranath
- (1817 - 1905), founder of the Brahmo Samaj, father of Rabindranath Tagore.

Tagore, Rabindranath
- (1861 - 1941). Bengali poet and mystic who won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1913. He founded a School where he tried to blend the best of Indian and Western literature.

Tagore, Surendra Mohan
- (second half 19th century) – Bengali Pandit, author of important works on music, e.g. "Universal History of Music", a compendium of musical knowledge.

- a time measure in Indian music. Clapping of hands.

- a stringed instrument without which no Indian orchestra is complete. Its varieties are numberless. In shape it is something like the vina, without the extra gourd and without the elaborate headpiece.

Tan, than
- keynote.

- transformation, transmigration, reincarnation.

- a frantic dance.

Tansen, Tan Sen
- famous musician and composer (second half 16th century), born and buried at Gwalior. He was summoned to the Court of the emperor Akbar. Homage is still paid at his tomb. Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan wrote a play about Tansen, published in "The Sufi" of April 1916.

- the first three steps towards manifestation, the identification of the Only Being by negation: "He is not this . . . not that."

- a typical Muslim song with very rich melody, consisting as a rule of two movements only; usually a love-song.

- the last three steps towards manifestation. The identification of the Only Being by the way of comparison: "He is like this . . . like that."

- being single or alone, declaring God to be One alone.

- Dravidian language spoken in Southern India.

Theosophical Society
- founded in 1875 in the United States of America by Helena Petrovna Blavatski and Colonel Henry Steel Olcott. The later became its first President and at his death in 1906 Mrs. Annie Besant succeeded him. In 1882 the headquarters were established in India, first at Benares (Varanasi) and then at Adyar (Madras). The objects of the Theosophical Society are to form a nucleus of the Universal Brotherhood of Humanity without distinction of race, creed, sex, caste or color, to encourage the study of comparative religion, philosophy and science and to investigate the unexplained laws of nature and the powers latent in man. The Theosophists consider that belief should be the result of individual study or intuition and should rest on knowledge.

Thumri, tumri
- a Hindustani love-song combining different ragas. The music is lively and well adapted to dancing.

Ticca gharry, tikka gari
- horse-cab.

- one of the most common of the Karnatic ragas.

Traz, Robert de
- French-Swiss writer, born in Paris in 1884, author of novels and essays. He founded "La Revue de Geneve".

Trigunatita, Swami
- Priest of the Hindu-temple and Teacher of the Vedanta Society in San Francisco, disciple of Shri Ramakrishna.

- mark of honor. One of the old distinctions used by Maharaja Krishnaraj of Mysore.

- Marathi Saint-poet (1598 - 1649). Unsuccessful in his business as a graindealer, he became a wandering ascetic and devoted his life to spiritual exercises and to the composing of religious songs. His abhangas are among the most famous of Indian poems.

Tuyll van Serooskerken, H. P. Baron van (Sheikh Sirdar)
- see biographical sketches.

Tuyll van Serooskerken, H. Baronesse van (Saida)
- see Willebeek le Mair, Henriette.

Tyaga Raja, Swami (Tyagaiya)
- a well-known Karnatic musician, great singer and poet (1759 - 1847) who lived and died at Tanjore, Southern India. He wrote over 800 songs and found the source of his inspiration in his worship of Ram. He gathered around himself a group of disciples who have continued his tradition. He was a creative musical genius and his competitions mark a definite advance in the musical development of Southern India.

"Universel, The"
- the Sufi Temple first to be built at Suresnes. Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan gave the outline for its construction and further indications. It is meant to be a place for Universal Worship and a center for art, study and meditation.

- literally: army, camp, the Hindustani language spoken by the Muslims of India. It contains Hindi, Arabic and Persian words.

- wedding festivity, generally indicating the anniversary of the death of a Saint. It may refer to the union with the Divine Beloved, attained by him and completed at the time of his death. Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan also used to indicate the Summerschool at Suresnes as an Urs.

- teacher.

- superior.

- with report to the Vina.

- a Sanskrit word meaning indifference. Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan explains it in the following words: "Renunciation of the desires of the senses", "Vairagya means satisfaction, the feeling that there is no desire more to be satisfied, that there is nothing on earth that is desired."

Vajad Ali Shah (Wajd...)
- Last Nawab of Oudh, a great patron and innovator of Indian dance.

Vakil, Wakil
- advocate, lawyer, administrator.

- born in 1479. Devotee of Shri Krishna; a celebrated Vaishnava teacher and founder of a Vaishnava Sect, a poet and philosopher. At an early age he began traveling throughout India to propagate his doctrine and finally settled down at Benares (Varanasi) where he composed seventeen works the most important of which were his commentaries on the Vedanta and on the Bhaga-vata-Purana. He taught a non-ascetical view of religion.

- the one sole orthodox exponent of the creed of the Hindus, called Vedanta either as teaching the ultimate scope of the Veda or simply as explained in the Upanishads which come at the end of the Veda, Vedanta meaning: the end of the Vedas.

- a book on morals and politics of State during the reign of Shri Krishna written by Vidura.

- birth. Viladat Day, the 5th of July, being the birthday of Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan, still celebrated by his mureeds,

Vilayat Inayat Khan
- see Inayat Khan, Vilayat.

- a stringed instrument having a large wooden hollow bowl on one side and a detachable gourd on the other side near the neck. Besides the main strings (4) stretched over the body of the instrument, it has a number of side strings on a separate bridge (3), which is fastened to the main bridge and to the wooden bowl. It is played either with the fingernails or with a plectrum.

- Vina-player. The suffix "ak" expresses action, a name of Vishnu.

- literally : immanent spirit, the God who preserves. One of the Hindu Trinity of Gods, the other two being Brahma, the Creator, and Shiva, the Destroyer.

Vivekananda, Swami
- (1863-1902), disciple of Shri Ramakrishna. Founder of the monastic Order of Ramakrishna and of the Vedanta Society in New York in 1896.

Vodyer, Bahadur Krishna Rajindra
- Maharaja of Mysore, whose dynasty dates from the beginning of the 15th century.

- preacher.

Wajad, Wajd
- ecstasy, rapture.

- dignitary,

Walsh, Walter
- leader of the Free Religious Movement, who wrote "The Free Religious Movement explained" (London 1925) and "My Spiritual Pilgrimage from Sectarianism to Free Religion",

Willebeek le Mair, Henriette (Saida)
- (1889 - 1966). Illustrator of many books for children, among others "Little songs of long ago" and "Christmas Carols for young children". Between 1911 and 1917 she published her popular books of illustrated nursery rhymes. Besides this she decorated a children's chapel in a church and a children's ward in a hospital in the Netherlands. Apart from her many drawings, paintings and designs, she made water color pictures of various episodes in Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan's life. When on a visit to India she made a drawing of Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti's tomb in Ajmer. Her artistic temperament found also expression in dancing and playing the vina. She married Mr. H. P. Baron van Tuyll van Serooskerken.

Wise Rabbi Dr. S. S.
- From the "New York Herald", European edition, Paris 26th December 1925 : "... Rabbi Wise's announcement in a sermon earlier in the week that the Jews must acknowledge the teachings of Jesus as that of a great Jewish scholar, created a storm in Jewry throughout the country."

- existence, manifestation. Inayat Khan calls it in "'Manifestation": "the third step of the consciousness, viz. the creation of vehicles such as mind and body."

- yoking: setting to work, effort, concentration of the mind, meditation, contemplation, a discipline aiming at the obtaining of the union of the individual soul with the Universal Soul.

Yogi, yogin
- who practices yoga.

- landlord, landowner.

Zanetti, Mr. E. de Cruzat (Sheikh)
- see biographical sketches.

- remembering, recital of the praise and names of God. A Sufi practice.
(Note: The Arabic word dhikr (dhikr) is written exactly the same in Arabic, Farsi and Urdu, but is pronounced like 'thikr' in Arabic, while it is pronounced like 'zikr' in Farsi and Urdu. Since Hazrat Inayat Khan spoke Urdu, Zikr is the transliteration that is being used on this website.)